Saturday, May 23, 2020
Si estÃ ¡ en Estados Unidos como turista y estÃ ¡ considerando la posibilidad de casarse y le asaltan las dudas sobre si puede hacerlo, la respuesta es que sÃ , es posible casarse con una visa de turista en Estados Unidos. Otra cosa muy distinta es poder quedarse legalmente en el paÃ s y conseguir la tarjeta de residencia por matrimonio. Si esto es lo que se pretende, es altamente recomendable leer con mÃ ¡xima atenciÃ ³n este artÃ culo y evitar errores que pueden costar muy caro. En este artÃ culo se explica cuÃ ¡les pueden ser los problemas para los extranjeros que entran a Estados Unidos con una visa de turista y se casan con un ciudadano americano. Asimismo, se hace referencia a las opciones legales para evitar problemas. Ã ¿QuiÃ ©nes son turistas desde el punto de vista migratorio? Esta pregunta puede parecer una tonterÃ a, pero no lo es. Son turistas los que entraron con esa visa, pero tambiÃ ©nÃ los espaÃ ±oles y los chilenos que viajan a Estados Unidos como turistas y sin visa, por formar parte del grupo de paÃ ses para los que rige el Programa de ExenciÃ ³n de Visados. En estos casos espaÃ ±oles y chilenos, en la mayorÃ a de los casos, solamenteÃ tienen una autorizaciÃ ³n electrÃ ³nica que se conoce como ESTA que les permite estar en el paÃ s por un mÃ ¡ximo de 90 dÃ as, que jamÃ ¡s se pueden extender.Ã Tanto los turistas con visa como los que sÃ ³lo tienen la ESTA pueden casarse en Estados Unidos.Ã Otra cosa distinta es que el matrimonio, Ã ºnicamente por sÃ mismo, produzca efectos migratorios. Requerimientos civilesÃ para casarse y que el matrimonio tenga efectos migratorios Hay que cumplir con los requisitos del estado o, en su caso, el condado o municipalidadÃ en el que se celebra el matrimonio.Ã Destacar que en todos los estados de Estados Unidos asÃ como en los territorios que componen la Commonwealth -como por ejemplo Puerto Rico-Ã es legal el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo. Por otra parte, en ninguno estÃ ¡ permitido la bigamia, es decir, estar casado al mismo tiempo con mÃ ¡s de una persona. Asuntos y precauciones migratorias que deben tenerse en cuenta En teorÃ a, cuando un extranjero que estÃ ¡ en Estados Unidos como turista y un ciudadano estadounidense contraen matrimonio, el cÃ ³nyuge extranjero deberÃ a salir del paÃ s antes de que expire su autorizaciÃ ³n para quedarse legalmente. A continuaciÃ ³n, si asÃ lo desean, el ciudadano pedirÃ a a su cÃ ³nyuge mediante un procedimiento consular y mientras esperar fuera de los Estados Unidos a que llegue elÃ momento de la entrevista en el consulado y se obtenga la visa de inmigrante. Pero lo cierto es que en la prÃ ¡ctica en muchos casos eso no ocurre asÃ y el cÃ ³nyuge extranjero decide quedarse en los Estados Unidos mientras se tramita los papeles. Para evitar problemas migratorios muy serios es aconsejable tener en cuenta la siguiente informaciÃ ³n: Primero: evitar problemas relacionados con la intenciÃ ³n, o lo que en inglÃ ©s se conoce como intent.Ã Cuando persona que entra en Estados Unidos como turista debe tener necesariamente esa intenciÃ ³n: pasear por el paÃ s y antes de que se le acabe la visa o el periodo de estancia legal debe regresar a su paÃ s. Y nunca debe ingresar al paÃ s con la intenciÃ ³n de contraer matrimonio. Cosa muy distinta y que puede admitirse es que dos personas decidan en un instante casarse. Es decir, que cuando el extranjero llegÃ ³ a USA no tenÃ a esa idea pero el amor a veces es impulsivo y se puede cambiar de opiniÃ ³n. Pero, Ã ¿cÃ ³mo evitar problemas y estar en condiciÃ ³n de poder demostrar que la intenciÃ ³n de casarse no existÃ a antes de entrar al paÃ s? Hasta hace poco, eso se garantizabaÃ siguiendo la regla 30/60 que una norma del Departamento de Estado que el USCIS solÃ aÃ aplicar en los casos de matrimonios entre extranjeros y ciudadanos americanos y que deberÃ a entenderse asÃ : Cuando se pedÃ aÃ un ajuste de estatus por matrimonio en los 30 dÃ as siguientes a la llegada del extranjero, se presumÃ a que se estaba actuando de mala fe. En otras palabras, que su intenciÃ ³n fue siempre casarse y que, por lo tanto, no debÃ a concederse la peticiÃ ³n deÃ ajuste de estatus. Cuando se solicitaba entre el dÃ a 31 y el 60 habÃ a y una fuerte sospecha de que puede haber habido una intenciÃ ³n de contraer matrimonio desde el principio. En esos casos habÃ a que esperar un examen muy exhaustivo del matrimonio y de sus intenciones. Sin embargo, la cantidad de dÃ as ha cambiado recientemente con la AdministraciÃ ³n Trump. SegÃ ºn un comunicado del Departamento de Estado, se considerarÃ ¡ salvo raras excepciones que los matrimonios con el objetivo de pedir un ajuste de estatus celebrados en los 90 dÃ as siguientes al ingreso a Estados Unidos son un fraude de ley. Y la consecuencia de ello es que no se aprobarÃ ¡ el ajuste de estatus, no se renovarÃ ¡ la visa, que podrÃ ¡ ser cancelada, no se aprobarÃ ¡ ningÃ ºn cambio de visa y, si el extranjero permanece en Estados Unidos, se convierte en elegible para la deportaciÃ ³n. Este es un cambio importante y muy serio. Es importante entender que no importa que familiares y amigos no tuvieron problemas por este asunto en el pasado. Las reglas han cambiado y lo que importa es lo que se aplica en estos momentos. Segundo: tener claro el proceso deÃ residencia por matrimonioÃ y todos los requerimientos.Ã La tramitaciÃ ³n costa bÃ ¡sicamente de dos partes. Por un lado la peticiÃ ³n per se y por otra el ajuste de estatus. Pero antes de comenzar asegurarse de que se cumplen requerimientos bÃ ¡sicos como, por ejemplo, el de ingresos mÃ nimos para patrocinar. Tercero: es muy importante tener en cuenta que mientras dura este proceso, la estancia del cÃ ³nyuge extranjero probablemente se encuentre por varios meses no cubierta desde el punto de vista migratorio por una visa o por la ESTA. Es por ello que no se debe salir de Estados Unidos. Lo recomendable es permanecer dentro del paÃ s o bien hasta que reciba la tarjeta de residente o bien un permiso que se conoce como advance parole. Si sale antes o sin esa autorizaciÃ ³n, se arriesga a que cuando quiera regresar se le prohÃ ba la entrada en la frontera de EEUU. Incluso es recomendable consultar con un abogado si conviene salir aÃ ºn teniendo el advance parole. Cuarto: tener muy claro que en este artÃ culo siempre se habla de matrimonio con un ciudadano americano y nunca del caso de una pareja conformada por extranjero turista y residente permanente. Y es que estos casos son muy diferentes ya que si el turista se queda sin la protecciÃ ³n legal de la visa o de la ESTA porque permanece en el paÃ s mÃ ¡s tiempo del permitido no va a poder ajustar su estatus y, por lo tanto, no va a poder obtener la residencia dentro de los Estados Unidos. Esta es una gran diferencia desde el punto de vista migratorio. Quinto: tener en cuenta que siempre se habla de turista que ingresÃ ³ con visa o con ESTA. Nada de lo que dice este artÃ culo aplica a los migrantes que llegaron a los Estados Unidos sin pasar por un control migratorio, es decir, aquellos que ingresaron ilegalmente por la frontera. Estas personas no pueden nunca ajustar su estatus por matrimonio. Sexto: no olvidar que los problemas pueden comenzar en el control migratorio. Es perfectamente posible que el oficial de InmigraciÃ ³n en la frontera de Estados Unidos (puerto, aeropuerto o frontera terrestre) prohÃ ba la entrada de un extranjero con una visa de turista cuando sospeche que su intenciÃ ³n es venir al paÃ s para casarse. El oficial de InmigraciÃ ³n siempre tienen una pequeÃ ±a conversaciÃ ³n con la persona que procesa (y se recomienda no mentir) yÃ puede llegar a la conclusiÃ ³n de que viene a casarse. AdemÃ ¡s, pueden abrir el equipaje y descubrir cosas sospechosas como el traje de novia, regalos, muchÃ simas maletas para un viaje en teorÃ a de sÃ ³lo un par de semanas, etc. En estos casos, InmigraciÃ ³n estÃ ¡ en su derecho de prohibir la entrada del extranjero, por mucha visa que tenga. Y es que es muy importante entender que para obtener la aprobaciÃ ³n de una visa no inmigrante, como es la de turista, o su renovaciÃ ³n o la garantÃ a de ser admitido al llegar a un control migratorio de los Estados Unidos es necesario ser, en todo momento, elegible para la visa y admisible para ingresar a USA. Estas sonÃ 20 causas que convierten a una persona en inelegibleÃ y estas sonÃ 22 que la convierten en inadmisible. Ã ¿QuÃ © pasa si migraciÃ ³nÃ no aprueba el ajuste de estatus por matrimonio? Es muy raro que el Servicio de InmigraciÃ ³n y CiudadanÃ a (USCIS, por sus siglas en inglÃ ©s) niegue la aprobaciÃ ³n del I-130, es decir, la parte inicial de la tramitaciÃ ³n donde realmente lo Ã ºnico que se confirma es que el que pide es un ciudadano y estÃ ¡ casado legalmente con la persona pedida. Nada mÃ ¡s. El problema surge en ajuste de estatus. Las razones pueden ser muy variadas. Por ejemplo, que se considere que se ingresÃ ³ a Estados Unidos con la intenciÃ ³n de casarse. Eso puede ser considerado un fraude de ley, ya que implica una mentira cuando se solicitÃ ³ la visa de turista o cuando se cumplimentÃ ³ la ESTA. Otro problema es cuando se considera que el matrimonio es falso y su Ã ºnica finalidad es que el cÃ ³nyuge extranjero obtenga asÃ los papeles. Esto puede dar lugar a castigos legales, ademÃ ¡s de no aprobarse la green card. Cabe destacar que, en la actualidad, la negaciÃ ³n de un ajuste de estatus por parte de USCIS es una prioridad para la deportaciÃ ³n. Finalmente, puede negarse la tarjeta de residencia por cualquiera de estas mÃ ¡s de 40 razones que aplican a todos los casos de solicitudes de residencia. Demoras en la tramitaciÃ ³n de los papeles Aunque las peticiones de green card por matrimonio con ciudadano se encuentran entre las mÃ ¡s rÃ ¡pidas, lo cierto es que pueden demorarse varios meses. Es posible aprender cÃ ³mo verificarlo. Opciones migratorias para pedir al novio o cÃ ³nyuge En primer lugar, si la pareja no estÃ ¡ casada, el estadounidense puede solicitar una visa de prometido o de novia cuando Ã ©ste todavÃ a no estÃ ¡ en los Estados Unidos y que esÃ conocida como K-1. Con esta visa podrÃ ¡n entrar al paÃ s los prometidos y los hijos de estos. En los casos en los que un ciudadano estÃ ¡ casado con un extranjero y Ã ©ste estÃ ¡ fuera de los Estados Unidos puede pedirlo mediante un I-130 y luego un procedimiento consular o, en casos muy especÃ ficos puede merecer la pena solicitar una visa K-3, pero es recomendable consultarlo con un abogado migratorio. Por Ã ºltimo, si el ciudadano vive fuera de los Estados Unidos y estÃ ¡ casado con un extranjero y deciden mudarse a USA tener en cuenta que pueden surgir problemas a la hora de probar ingresos. Asesorarse antes de iniciar los trÃ ¡mites. InformaciÃ ³n relevante para evitar problemas Para evitar problemas es fundamental estar informado. Este test sobre visas de turista contiene informaciÃ ³n esencial sobre cÃ ³mo obtenerla y cÃ ³mo conservarla. Este otro, sobre la autorizaciÃ ³n que seÃ conoce como ESTA para los ciudadanos de paÃ ses que pueden viajar sin visa. Asimismo, este sobre la tarjeta de residencia permite tener claros puntos fundamentales para obtenerla y para conservarla. Finalmente, tener en cuenta que la informaciÃ ³n de este artÃ culo no aplica a los extranjeros que ingresan ilegalmente en Estados Unidos, ya que no podrÃ an ajustar su estatus por matrimonio con ciudadano. Y en el caso de matrimonio con residente permanente es siempre requisito imprescindible que se estÃ © legalmente en el paÃ s para poder ajustar su estatus. No serÃ ¡ posible tanto si se entrÃ ³ ilegalmente como si se ingresÃ ³ con visa y se quedÃ ³ mÃ ¡s tiempo del permitido. Este artÃ culo es informativo. No constituye consejo legal para ningÃ ºn caso concreto.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
As Doug and I walked into the room, the old familiar smell of Ã¢â¬Å"bandÃ¢â¬ crept around me. A smell best described as a mix of dirty carpet and metal; the majority of my free time in middle/ high school was spent within the realm. Now 18, and out of high school, I set out to help Doug with his bandÃ¢â¬â¢s halftime show, due to his shortage of staff, a task which seemed very easy at the time. Following the first day, however, I abruptly found out how difficult the task was and the degree of perseverance needed to be a successful tech. Doug is my cousinÃ¢â¬â¢s fiance and the band teacher at a private catholic school. Slender in build, polite and talented, we hadn t spent much time together prior to the upcoming week. But based off of past encounters, I sensed the two of us would easily get along. Before the first day began, Doug had given me a folder containing the show music. The brown cardboard folder, held about twenty pages of show music, with the titles: Ã¢â¬Å"Jurassic Park FantasyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Indiana JonesÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"Stars Wars/E.TÃ¢â¬ , a playlist meant to honor the famous composer: John Williams. But for the week, Doug noted, we would mainly focus on Jurassic Park. And as I scanned through the pages, it definitely seemed reachable. The rhythms had been simplified to accommodate a high school level and the note ranges also seemed easier. Now sitting in DougÃ¢â¬â¢s office, awaiting the arrival of the children, I asked Doug, Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the plan for today? More importantly... whenÃ¢â¬â¢s lunch?Ã¢â¬ . With aShow MoreRelatedA Good Student Is Never An Easy Thing1107 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesworking can definitely wear you down. I always found a love for school, but it never came easy for me. When the workload got too high I would panic and put it off until the last second, or, in some cases, not complete it at all. 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Therefore, all educational institutions including public, charter, private and homeschooling should implement the common core standards raising the criterion of our educational system. Students that attend public and charter schools should receive the same education in the United States regardless of where they live. The common core standards is paving the way for that to be possible. It is assuringRead MoreMy Life At A Public School1151 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesin the Harlan School District for 27 years, before resigning in 2013. I spent much of my childhood split between two places: our family farm and my momÃ¢â¬â¢s classroom. I ran through the cornfields just as much as I ran through the hallways of her school. As time went on, I spent less time on the farm and more time in classrooms. My mom worked at a public elementary school, so that is where my parents decided to send me. I started at a public school and graduated from a public school. I have been in
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
What?Ã¢â¬ Thea said. This was something she could speak out about. Ã¢â¬Å"Blaise, are you out of your mind?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I hope youÃ¢â¬â¢re not saying you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to do spells,Ã¢â¬ Blaise said dangerously. We will write a custom essay sample on Night World : Spellbinder Chapter 5 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s part of it, you know.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m saying thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no way we can get enough blood to fill this without them noticing. What are we going to tell them? Ã¢â¬ËI just want a little to remember you by?'Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Use your ingenuity,Ã¢â¬ Vivienne said musically, twining a red-gold strand of hair around her fingers. Ã¢â¬Å"In a pinch we could always use the Cup of Lethe,Ã¢â¬ Blaise added calmly. Ã¢â¬Å"Then no matter what we do, they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t remember.Ã¢â¬ Thea nearly fell over. What Blaise was suggesting was like using a nuclear bomb to swat a fly. Ã¢â¬Å"You are crazy,Ã¢â¬ she said quietly. Ã¢â¬Å"You know that maidens arenÃ¢â¬â¢t allowed to use that kind of spell, and we probably wonÃ¢â¬â¢t even be able to use it when weÃ¢â¬â¢re mothers, and probably not even when weÃ¢â¬â¢re crones. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s stuff for the elders.Ã¢â¬ She stared at Blaise until the gray eyes dropped. Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in classifying some spells as forbidden,Ã¢â¬ Blaise said loftily, but she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t look back at Thea and she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t pursue the subject. As she and Dani left the patio, Thea noticed that Dani had taken one of the small vials. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you going to the dance?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I guess so.Ã¢â¬ Dani shrugged lithe shoulders. Ã¢â¬Å"John Finkelstein from our world lit class asked me a couple weeks ago. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never been to one of their dances before-but maybe this is the time to start.Ã¢â¬ Now what did that mean? Thea felt uneasy. Ã¢â¬Å"And youÃ¢â¬â¢re planning to put a spell on him?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You mean this?Ã¢â¬ She twisted the vial in her fingers. Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know. I figured IÃ¢â¬â¢d take it just in caseÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ She looked up at Thea defensively. Ã¢â¬Å"You took one for Eric.Ã¢â¬ Thea hesitated. She hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t talked to Dani about Eric yet. Part of her wanted to and part of her was scared. What did Dani really think of Outsiders, anyway? Ã¢â¬Å"After all,Ã¢â¬ Dani said, her sweet face tranquil, Ã¢â¬Å"theyÃ¢â¬â¢re only humans.Ã¢â¬ Saturday night Thea took a dress out of the closet. It was pale green-so pale that it almost looked white-and designed along Grecian lines. Witch clothes had to feel good as well as look good, and this dress was soft and lightweight, swirling beautifully when she turned. Blaise wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t wearing a dress. She was wearing a tuxedo. It had a red silk bow tie and cummerbund and it looked fantastic on her. This is probably going to be the only dance in history where the most popular girl has on cufflinks, Thea thought. Eric arrived right on time. He knocked at the front door of the shop, the door that only Outsiders used. Night People came around back, to a door that was unmarked except for what looked like a bit of graffiti-a spray-painted black dahlia. Okay, Thea thought. She took a deep breath before she unlocked the door and let him in. This is business, business, businessÃ¢â¬ ¦. But the first moment wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as awkward as sheÃ¢â¬â¢d feared. He smiled and held out a corsage of white orchids. She smiled and took it. Then she said, Ã¢â¬Å"You look nice.Ã¢â¬ His suit was pale fatigue brown, loose and comfortable looking. Ã¢â¬Å"Me? You look nice. I mean-you look wonderful. That color makes your hair look just like gold.Ã¢â¬ Then he glanced down at himself apologetically. Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t go to many dances, IÃ¢â¬â¢m afraid.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t you?Ã¢â¬ SheÃ¢â¬â¢d heard girls talking about him at school. It seemed as if everyone liked him, wanted to get close to him. Ã¢â¬Å"No, IÃ¢â¬â¢m usually pretty busy. You know, working, playing sports.Ã¢â¬ He added more softly, Ã¢â¬Å"And I have a hard time thinking of things to say around girls.Ã¢â¬ Funny, you never seem to have a problem around me, Thea thought. She saw him looking the shop over. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s my grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s store. She sells all kinds of things here, from all around the world.Ã¢â¬ She watched him closely. This was an important test. If he-a human-believed in this stuff, he was either a New Age geek or dangerously close to the truth. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s cool,Ã¢â¬ he said, and she was happy to see that he was lying. Ã¢â¬Å"I mean,Ã¢â¬ he said, obviously struggling to find a polite way to praise the voodoo dolls and wand crystals, Ã¢â¬Å"I think people can really affect their bodies by changing their state of mind.Ã¢â¬ You donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how right you are, Thea thought. There was a clack of high heels on wood, and Blaise came down the stairs. Her shoes appeared first, then her fitted trouser legs, then all the curves, emphasized here and there with brilliant red silk. Finally came her shoulders and head, her midnight hair half up and half down, framing her face in stormy dark curls. Thea glanced sideways at Eric. He was smiling at Blaise, but not in the goofy, dying-sheep way other guys smiled. His was just a genuine grin. Ã¢â¬Å"Hi, Blaise,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"Going to the dance? We can take you if you need a lift.Ã¢â¬ Blaise stopped dead. Then she gave him a blistering glare. Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you, I have my own date. IÃ¢â¬â¢m just going to pick him up now.Ã¢â¬ On the way to the door, she looked hard at Thea. Ã¢â¬Å"You do have everything you need for tonight- donÃ¢â¬â¢t you?Ã¢â¬ The vial was in TheaÃ¢â¬â¢s pale green clutch purse. Thea still didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how she could possibly get it filled, but she nodded tightly. Ã¢â¬Å"Good.Ã¢â¬ Blaise swept out and got into a silver-gray Porsche that was parked at the curb. KevinÃ¢â¬â¢s car. But, as Thea knew, she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to pick up Kevin. Ã¢â¬Å"I think I made her mad,Ã¢â¬ Eric said. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t worry. Blaise likes being mad. Should we go now?Ã¢â¬ Business, business, business, Thea chanted to herself as they walked into the school cafeteria. It had been completely transformed from its daytime identity. The lights and music were oddly thrilling and the whirl of color out on the dance floor was strangely inviting. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not here to have fun, Thea told herself again. But her blood seemed to be sparkling. She saw Eric glance at her conspiratorially and she could almost feel what he was feeling-as if they were two kids standing hand in hand at the edge of some incredible carnival. Ã¢â¬Å"Uh, I should tell you,Ã¢â¬ Eric said. Ã¢â¬Å"I canÃ¢â¬â¢t really dance-except for slow ones.Ã¢â¬ Oh, great. But of course this was what she was here to do. To put on a show of romancing Eric for Blaise. A slow song was starting that minute. Thea shut her eyes briefly and resigned herself to fate-which didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem all that awful as she and Eric stepped out onto the floor. Terpsichore, Muse of the Dance, help me not make a fool of myself. SheÃ¢â¬â¢d never been so close to a human boy, and sheÃ¢â¬â¢d never tried to dance to human music. But Eric didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to notice her lack of experience. Ã¢â¬Å"You know, I canÃ¢â¬â¢t believe this,Ã¢â¬ he said. His arms were around her lightly, almost reverently. As if he were afraid sheÃ¢â¬â¢d break if he held her too hard. Ã¢â¬Å"What canÃ¢â¬â¢t you believe?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"WellÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He shook his head. Ã¢â¬Å"Everything, I guess. That IÃ¢â¬â¢m here with you. And that it all feels so easy. And that you always smell so good.Ã¢â¬ Thea laughed in spite of herself. Ã¢â¬Å"I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t use any yemonja this time-Ã¢â¬ she began, and then she almost bit her tongue. Adrenaline washed over her in a wave of painful tingles. Was she crazy? She was blurting out spell ingredients, for EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s sake. He was too easy to talk to, that was the problem. Every so often sheÃ¢â¬â¢d forget he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a witch. Ã¢â¬Å"You okay?Ã¢â¬ he said as her silence stretched on. His voice was concerned. No, I am not okay. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got Blaise on one side and the laws of the Night World on the other, and theyÃ¢â¬â¢re both out to get me. And I donÃ¢â¬â¢t even know if youÃ¢â¬â¢re worth itÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬Å"Can I ask you something?Ã¢â¬ she said abruptly. Ã¢â¬Å"Why did you knock me out of the way of that snake?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Huh? It was in a striking coil. You could have got bit.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But so could you.Ã¢â¬ So did you. He frowned as if stricken by one of those unsolvable mysteries of life. Ã¢â¬Å"YeahÃ¢â¬ ¦ but that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem so bad somehow. I suppose that sounds stupid.Ã¢â¬ Thea didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to answer. And she was suddenly in terrible conflict about what to do. Her body seemed to want her to lean her head against EricÃ¢â¬â¢s shoulder, but her mind was yelling in alarm at the very thought. At that moment she heard loud voices at the edge of the dance floor. Ã¢â¬Å"Get out of the way,Ã¢â¬ a guy in a blue jacket was saying. Ã¢â¬Å"She smiled at me, and IÃ¢â¬â¢m going over there.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It was me she was smiling at, you jerk,Ã¢â¬ a guy in a gray jacket snapped back. Ã¢â¬Å"So just back off and let me go.Ã¢â¬ Expletives. Ã¢â¬Å"It was me, and youÃ¢â¬â¢d better get out of the way.Ã¢â¬ More expletives. Ã¢â¬Å"It was me, and youÃ¢â¬â¢d better let go.Ã¢â¬ A fistfight started. Chaperones came running. Guess whoÃ¢â¬â¢s here? Thea asked herself. She had no trouble at all locating Blaise. The red-trimmed tuxedo was surrounded by a ring of guys, which was surrounded by a ring of abandoned and angry girls. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe we should go over and say hi,Ã¢â¬ Thea said. She wanted to warn Blaise about starting a riot. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay. She sure is popular, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t she?Ã¢â¬ They managed to worm their way through the encircling crowd. Blaise was in her element, glorying in the adulation and confusion. Ã¢â¬Å"I waited for an hour and a half, but you never showed up,Ã¢â¬ a very pale Kevin was saying to her. He was wearing an immaculate white silk shirt and exquisitely tailored black pants. His eyes were hollow. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe you gave me the wrong address,Ã¢â¬ Blaise said thoughtfully. Ã¢â¬Å"I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t find your house.Ã¢â¬ She had her hand tucked into the arm of a very tall guy with shoulder-length blond hair, who looked as if he worked out four or five hours a day. Ã¢â¬Å"Anyway, you want to dance?Ã¢â¬ Kevin looked at the blond guy, who looked back impassively, his cleft chin rock hard. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t mind Sergio,Ã¢â¬ Blaise said. Ã¢â¬Å"He was just keeping me company. Do you not want to dance?Ã¢â¬ KevinÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes fell. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, yeah, of course I want toÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ As Blaise detached herself from Sergio, Thea leaned forward. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢d better not do anything too public,Ã¢â¬ she hissed in her cousinÃ¢â¬â¢s ear. Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s already been one fight.Ã¢â¬ Blaise just gave her an amused glance and took KevinÃ¢â¬â¢s arm. Most of the boys followed her, and with the crowd gone, Thea saw Dani at a small table. She was wearing a sparkling gold dress and she was alone. Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s go sit,Ã¢â¬ Eric said, before Thea could even get a word out. She threw him a grateful look. Ã¢â¬Å"WhereÃ¢â¬â¢s John?Ã¢â¬ Thea asked as they pulled chairs to the table. Dani nodded toward the pack following Blaise. Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t mind, though,Ã¢â¬ she said, sipping a cup of punch philosophically. Ã¢â¬Å"He was kind of boring. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know about all this dance stuff.Ã¢â¬ Thea knew she meant it was different from Circle dances, where everyone was in harmony and there was no pairing off. You danced with the elements and with everybody else, all one big interconnected whole. Eric volunteered to get more punch. Ã¢â¬Å"HowÃ¢â¬â¢s it going with him?Ã¢â¬ Dani asked in a low voice when he was gone. Her velvety dark eyes searched TheaÃ¢â¬â¢s curiously. Ã¢â¬Å"EverythingÃ¢â¬â¢s okay so far,Ã¢â¬ Thea said evasively. Then she looked out toward the dance floor. Ã¢â¬Å"I see Viv and Selene are here.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah. I think Vivienne already got her blood. She stabbed Tyrone with her corsage pin.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How clever,Ã¢â¬ Thea said. Vivienne was wearing a black dress that made her hair look like flame, and Selene was in deep violet that showed off her blondness. They both seemed to be having a wonderful time. Dani yawned. Ã¢â¬Å"I think IÃ¢â¬â¢ll probably go home early-Ã¢â¬ she began, and then she broke off. Some kind of a disturbance had begun on the other side of the room, in front of the main entrance. People were scuffling. At first, Thea thought it was just another minor fracas over Blaise-but then a figure came staggering out under the lights of the dance floor. Ã¢â¬Å"I want to know,Ã¢â¬ the voice said in dissonant tones that rose over the music. Ã¢â¬Å"I want to knoooow.Ã¢â¬ The band stopped. People turned. Something about the voice made them do that. It was so obviously abnormal, the cadence wrong even for somebody who was drunk. This was someone who was disturbed. Thea stood up. Ã¢â¬Å"I want to knoooow,Ã¢â¬ the figure said again, sounding lost and petulant. Then it turned and Thea felt ice down her spine. The person was wearing a Halloween mask. A kidÃ¢â¬â¢s plastic mask of a football player, the kind held on with an elastic string. Perfectly appropriate for a Halloween dance. But at Homecoming, it was grotesque. Oh, Eileithyia, Thea thought. Ã¢â¬Å"Can you tell me?Ã¢â¬ the figure asked a short girl in black ruffles. She backed away, reaching for her dance partner. Mr. Adkins, TheaÃ¢â¬â¢s physics teacher, came jogging up, his tie fluttering. None of the other chaperones seemed to be around-probably because they were out somewhere trying to control fights over Blaise, Thea thought. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, letÃ¢â¬â¢s settle; settle,Ã¢â¬ Mr. Adkins said, making motions as if the figure were an unruly class. Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s just take it easyÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ The guy in the Halloween mask pulled something out of his jacket. It glinted like a rainbow under the colored dance floor lights, reflective as a mirror. Ã¢â¬Å"A straight razor,Ã¢â¬ Dani said in a hushed voice. Ã¢â¬Å"Queen Ms, whereÃ¢â¬â¢d he get that?Ã¢â¬ Something about the weapon-maybe the fact that it was so weird, so old-fashioned-made it scarier than a knife. Thea pictured the way even a safety razor could slice flesh. Mr. Adkins was backing away, arms held out as if to protect the students behind him. His eyes were frightened. I have to stop this, Thea thought. The problem was that she had no idea how. If it had been an animal, she could have stepped out and tried mind control. But she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t control a person. She started walking anyway, slowly, so as not to attract attention. She skirted the edge of the crowd around the dance floor until she drew parallel with the masked guy. Who by now had switched to a new question. Ã¢â¬Å"Have you seen her?Ã¢â¬ he said. He kept asking it as he walked, and people kept backing away. Vivienne and Selene drew to either side with their dates. The razor glittered. Thea looked toward the opposite end of the dance floor, where Blaise was standing with Kevin Imamura. With no Buck, no Duane to protect her. But Blaise didnÃ¢â¬â¢t look frightened. That was one thing about Blaise-she had magnificent physical courage. She was standing with one hand on her hip and Thea could tell that she knew exactly who was coming her way. In between moving couples, Thea glimpsed something else. Eric was on the other side of the dance floor, holding two cups of punch in one hand and one in the other. He was keeping pace with the masked guy, just as she was. She tried to catch his eye, but the crowd was too thick. Ã¢â¬Å"Have you seen her?Ã¢â¬ the masked guy asked a couple right in front of Blaise. Ã¢â¬Å"I want to knoooowÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ The couple split like bowling pins. Blaise stood exposed, tall and elegant in her black suit, lights shimmering off her midnight hair. Ã¢â¬Å"Here I am, Randy,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"What is it you want to know?Ã¢â¬ Randy Marik stopped, panting. His breath made a muffled noise against the plastic. The rest of the huge room was eerily silent. Thea moved closer, walking silently. Eric was pulling in from the other side, and he saw her for the first time. He shook his head at her and mouthed, Ã¢â¬Å"Stay away.Ã¢â¬ Yeah. And youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to tackle him armed with three party cups of punch. She gave him a look and mouthed, Ã¢â¬Å"You stay away.Ã¢â¬ RandyÃ¢â¬â¢s hand was trembling, making the razor flash. His chest was heaving. Ã¢â¬Å"What is it, Randy?Ã¢â¬ Blaise said. The toe of one high heeled shoe tapped the floor impatiently. Ã¢â¬Å"I feel bad,Ã¢â¬ Randy said. It was almost a moan. Suddenly his head didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem well connected to his neck. Ã¢â¬Å"I miss you.Ã¢â¬ His voice made TheaÃ¢â¬â¢s flesh creep. He sounded like a person with the body of an eighteen-year-old and the mind of a four-year-old. Ã¢â¬Å"I cry all the time,Ã¢â¬ he said. With his left hand, he pulled off the Halloween mask. Kevin recoiled. Thea herself felt a wave of horror. He was crying blood. Bloody streams ran down from each of his eyes, mingling with regular tears. A spell? Thea wondered. Then she thought, no; heÃ¢â¬â¢s cut himself. That was it. HeÃ¢â¬â¢d made two crescent-shaped incisions under his eyes and the blood was coming from them. The rest of his face was ghastly, too. He was white as a corpse and there was fuzzy stubble on his chin. His eyes stared wildly. And his hair, which had always been strawberry blond and silky, stood up all over his head like bleached hay. Ã¢â¬Å"You came all the way from New Hampshire to tell me that?Ã¢â¬ Blaise said. She rolled her eyes. Randy let out a sobbing breath. This seemed to make Kevin braver. Ã¢â¬Å"Look, man, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know who you are-but youÃ¢â¬â¢d better keep away from her,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t you go home and sober up?Ã¢â¬ It was a mistake. The wild eyes above the bloodstained cheeks focused on him. Ã¢â¬Å"Who are you?Ã¢â¬ Randy said thickly, advancing a step. Ã¢â¬Å"WhoÃ¢â¬ ¦ areÃ¢â¬ ¦ you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Kevin, move!Ã¢â¬ Thea said urgently. It was too late. The hand with the razor flashed out, lightning quick. Blood spurted from KevinÃ¢â¬â¢s face. How to cite Night World : Spellbinder Chapter 5, Essay examples
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Describe about transactional leadership and transformational leadership styles. Answer: Leaders have the duty and obligation of inspiring their superiors and employees so that they will feel obligated to take action towards realising the goals of the organisation. However, every leader has their own style of leading others but at the end of the day ensure that the goals are accomplished.When employees and staff comprehend what the changes that need to be done are and adhere to them, then that is a clear indication that the leader is using the right style of leadership. During times of crisis, the way a leader goes by his task will determine the type of response the followers have towards the crisis. Transactional leadership majorly puts its focus on connection between the leaders and their followers towards achieving the set goals while Transformational leadership focuses on the leader putting their whole concertation on what is important and what needs to be accomplished by their followers (Hameed, 2013). Transactional Leadership Style Transactional leadership is a style in which leaders encourageobedience by team membersby means of usingrecompenses and penances. It mostly focuses on administration, organisation and teamenactment. Unlike transformational style of leadership, this approach does not consider changing the future but rather keeping things the way they are. The primary focus of such leaders is to keep track of and monitor the performance of followers to find any trace of deviations or mistakes (Abuorabl, 2012). It is most effective in cases of emergency or crisis because the leaders are expected to set the goals of the organisation, communicate what the followers expectation are and stipulate on how the followers will be rewarded for their efforts. This style of leadership is mostly operational in companies that have grown past the frenzied phase of growth. Just like Bill Gates the CEO of Microsoft company who used the transactional style of leadership where he used to visit teams that were working on the new projects and asked them hard and tough questions. When they answered his questions correctly, then he would be satisfied and will know that they are heading to the right direction towards achieving the set goals. Today, Bill Gates is one of the richest people in the world, aided by the transactional leadership style. It institutes and regulates the practices that will make the organisation reach the maturity stage by putting emphasis on the goals, production of tasks and increase of efficiency. These type of leaders put their central concentration on improving the productivity of the already established procedures and customs and following the rules that exist than implementing changes to the organisation of the company. They use an exchange model where rewards are given for good performance and positive progress in followers (Hartley, 2010). In times of crisis and emergency, transactional leaders can execute punishment for any justified poor performance in employees or negative results until the crisis is brought under control. They manage each sector or tasks individually to make sure that it is completed (Benington, 2010). What they focus on contingent reward is given when the goals set are accomplished successfully, and contingent penalization is given when the performance quality is below the standards. With transactional leadership being more managerial in style, it acts as the foundation for the transformational leadership style that applies on the higher needs level rather than lower needs like transactional leadership. A transactional leader operatesby creating detailed structures that clarify what is anticipated of the followers and the recompenses they get for adhering to the rules and regulations; the punishment part is not usually stated out, but the followers are conscious of it and know that the formal systems of discipline exist. When a follower is allocated a specific task, they are fully responsible for everything, whether they are capable of performing it or not and whether the resources for executing it are available or not (Ivey, 2008). Transformational Leadership Style Transformational is a leadership style by which the organisational manager or the overall leader works with the juniors to ascertain any change that needs to be implemented, generate a vision to chaperon through inspiration and put forth change in line with dedicated team members. This type of leadership style serves the purpose of enhancing the confidence of followers together with their job performance and motivation to execute their various duties. Transformational leaders manage to do all the above by connecting the followers feeling of identity and sense of character to a mission and the shared distinctiveness of the company (Keel, 2007). Transformational leaders have the aspiration, resolution, and expertise to execute the necessary changes and recognise the basics of transformational leadership. With this, they will accomplish the degree of change needed in any dynamic environment and handle crisis critically. In their book, Leadership and Organizational Commitment: Transactional And Transformational Leadership Vs. Organizational Commitment Sabir, Anwar and Hameed said that the rarest resource in the world today is the leadership talent that can reform organisations recurrently to win in the world of the future generation. Sabir et.al. (2013). An organisation to be transformed faster and prepare it for a future success needs to have skilled transformational leaders. An organisations future depend on how many transformational leaders it has, it can be one or all of them. They will be very substantial in cases of any changes and crisis management. An example of a CEO who used the transformational leadership style and was successful throughout is Marissa Mayer, the CEO of Yahoo company. She joined the company of Google and was an employee before becoming the CEO of Yahoo. She had to make tough decisions that later on cost her but kept on pushing alongside her employees whom she inspired all the way. Despite the losses that Yahoo at one time incurred, her influence and charisma saw her through solving the crisis. The critics from the competitors did not have any impact on her goals for the company, the cooperative and loyal employees were with her all the way. Transformational leaders act as the role models of their followers for them to get inspired and raise their interest in ensuring the well-being of the organisation. The staff will respect a leader who possesses the qualities of a good leader, however, if the leader does not have the qualities, then he or she will not be considered as a role model by anyone. A transformational leader will challenge the followers to take considerable responsibility for their work and give it their devotion, he or she will know the strengths and weaknesses of followers and with this, will be able to assign the followers with tasks that boost their performance and fit their abilities and skills (Abuorabl, 2012). These leaders hold positive expectations for their followers and believe that each of the followers can do to their level best. Because of this, the followers getmotivated,endowed and inspired to surpass their normal levels of enactment cultivating them to become loyal and high performers. With their full loyalty and participation, even in times of crisis or change, it will be very easy to handle issues and bring back the order and therefore the continuation of an organisations development and success. According to the various studies carried out, it has become evident that transformational leadership styles are associatedwith progressive aftermaths in comparison to other styles of leadership including transactional leadership style (Bertocci, 2009). Charisma, one of the qualities a transformational leader gets from the ability to motivate and inspire followers, is a variable most powerfullyconnected to leader efficiency. Other works indicate that transformational leadership is relat edclearly with worker outcomes plusobligation, cooperation, clarity of task, and welfare (Coppola, 2011). A good example is that of Nelson Mandela who used the transformational leadership style during the time when he was working with other leaders to abolish apartheid in South Africa. His recurring emphasis for forgiveness contributed towards the eradication of racial separation in South Africa because of the influence he had on people, until today, he is the role model of so many people, old and young altogether because of his transformational leadership qualities. Transactional Leadership Style vs. Transformational Leadership Style In contradiction to transformational leadership, transactional leadership styles concentrate on the use of awards and penalties to achieve assent from followers. Transformational leaders look towards altering the future to motivate followers and achieve goals, while transactional leaders pursue to maintain the status quo, not aiming for progress. Studies have shown transformational leadership practices traverse to higher satisfaction with the leader among followers and better leader efficiency, while transactional applications result in higher follower job satisfaction and leader job performance (Shumate, 2011). Transformational leadership and transactional leadership are the two management styles that are usually associated the most. Scholars have distinguished the two styles and explained that transactional leader is leaders who exchange touchable rewards for the loyalty and work of followers. Transformational leaders are those who participate with followers, put emphasis on higher order key requirements, and rise awareness concerning the importance of explicit outcomes and new ways whereby those results might be attained (Keel, 2007). Transactional leaders tend to be more inactive as transformational managers establish active behaviours that comprise of providing a sense of duty. Transactional leadership is a powerful motivator whereby there are tangible rewards that have proven to be reliable motivation tool. Most followers or employees need a job to pay their bills and other requirements and would do things faster and effectively just to be rewarded, including implementing changes in times of crisis. Especially when short-term results are needed fast, like in crisis management, for instance providing extra payment for the sales persons to meet a surge in holiday demand or proposing a vacation time to a team of employees working on a project if they finish it by a specific deadline are operational styles to solving instantaneous financial and organisational problems (Zumitzavan, 2015). While the transformational style of leadership may yield more long-lasting results, it does not, however, giveprecisedirections as to who should accomplish what in which manner and how. On the other hand, with transactional style, there is almost no room for misinterpretations as each party knows exactly what their responsibilities are. It is a simple style and will cost low, and that is the reason it will be useful in implementing changes and managing a crisis in an organisation (Michie, 2015). Most leaders can perform it because it does not require one to possess personal traits like charisma and inspiration nor does it need training. Its primary focus is achieving the goals set at the end of the day. References Abuorabl, T. (2012). The Impact of Transformational And Transactional Leadership Characteristics On Motivation, Job Satisfaction And Trust: Jordanian universities. Top of Form Bertocci, D. I. (2009). Leadership in Organizations: There is a difference between leaders and managers. Lanham, Md: University Press of America. Hartley, J., Benington, J. (2010). Leadership for Healthcare. Bristol: Policy Press. Horsford, S. D. (2010). New Perspectives in Educational Leadership: Exploring social, political, and community contexts and meaning. New York: Peter Lang. Ivey, G. (2008). Transformational and active transactional leadership: Manifestation, effects, and followers' expectations across hierarchical levels in the Canadian military. Ottawa: Library and Archives Canada = Bibliothequeet Archives Canada. Keel, J. M. (2007). The Relationship between Leadership Style, Work-Family Interface, and Parenting Style in Police Officers. Landy, F. J., Conte, J. M. (2010). Work In The 21st Century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology. Malden, Mass: Wiley-Blackwell. Ledlow, G. R., Coppola, M. N. (2011). Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, skills, and applications. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett. Ramos, O. (2007). A Leadership Perspective for Understanding Police Suicide: An analysis based on the suicide attitude questionnaire. Boca Raton, Fla: Dissertation.com. Sabir, M. S., Anwar, N., Hameed, R. M. (2013). Leadership and Organizational Commitment: Transactional and Transformational Leadership Versus Organizational Commitment: A Test On Uk Manufacturing Industry. Saarbrucken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing. Shumate, R. L. (2011). Transformational Versus Transactional Leadership: Which perceived leadership style has the stronger relationship between teacher efficacy and student achievement?. Zumitzavan, V., Michie, J. (2015). Personal Knowledge Management, Leadership Styles, And Organisational Performance: A case study of the healthcare industry in Thailand.
Thursday, March 26, 2020
200 Million Army from the East Revelation: The last book of the New Testament. Easily the most controversial and feared book in the entire Bible, covering what most people believe as a prophecy of the Last days of mankind. It was written by John the Evangelist, brother of James the Martyr, when he was forcibly exiled to Patmos Island for standing firm on his faith to Jesus. Probably one of the most talked about chapters in the entire Revelation is Chapter 9:15-21, wherein there is a mention of an enormous army numbering to 200,000,000. The mere number of these invading armies causes even the most liberals to be intrigued, to be curious enough as to warrant a deeper study on the accuracy of the said prophecy. Need essay sample on "200 Million Army from the East" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Main Body The Vatican According to The Christian Community Bible, the way of using apocalyptic images as done by John in Revelation, was a popular form of literature during Jesus and Johns time. It was their way of interpreting present events using dramatic images with visions and angels, and usually involving a colossal war between the good and the bad (481). John did not intend to foretell future events or give a picture of the last days, rather he simply made use of his God-given talents as a prophet and as a writer, using the style common in his time. The Catholic Church, as explained in Christian Community Bible, intends to view the Revelation of Jesus Christ to be full of joy and hope and not as terrifying and difficult as the popular culture intends it to be portrayed (482). Contemporary Interpretations According to Robert Talley, author of countless books on Revelation, there are three main points in Revelation. The first being, it was written for the seven churches, and not for individuals. Two, the entire book of Revelation was written to encourage the faithful, warn those who are still deceived, and call upon those who have spiritual problems into repentance. And lastly, he reminds us that the first four trumpets in chapter 8 are to be taken literally, and the other two in chapter 9 are of symbolic interpretations (2007). In another report on Revelation 9:16, David Guzik is of the belief of the possibility that the number of 200,000,000 is not to be taken literally, rather it might be a representation of an army foreseen by John that is too many to count, and whose number is never before seen by mankind (2001). It is the thinking of Guzik that John may have seen in his vision the modern mechanized war machines of today, and that he was simply describing them in the only possible way he can. Furthermore, during the Second World War, the armies of both the Allies and the Axis forces combined, numbered only 70 million. China has claimed in 1965 that they have an army force of over 200 million, however, many experts doubted such claim. Even if it were true, and China marched their army towards west, as John foretold, it would be improbable for that army to wipe out 2 billion people, or roughly a third of mankind (Guzik, 2001). Hence, the safest interpretation would be to view this as a literal 200 million strong army, but of a demonic kind, invading mankind. This interpretation would also support the conclusion of a demonic army of locusts written by John in earlier chapters. Keith Krell of Bible.org shares the same views. He notes that while China has the capability of assembling 200 million armies, it is more likely that John speaks of a demonic origin. His reasons for this are: 1.Since the fifth trumpet preceding the sixth is clearly of a demonic nature, it would be almost certain that the sixth is also demonic. 2. Since the leaders of this army are fallen angels, it is safe to assume their subordinates are also demons. 3. There are also other writings in the Bible about demonic armies, e.g., Kings 2:11; Kings 6:13-17. 4. The weapons mentioned by John, like smoke, sulfur, and fire, have been commonly associated in the Bible as being weapons of hellish armies (Krell, 2004). One more point of contention is that it would be impossible to assemble 200 million horses, thus it is more plausible to interpret them as symbolic of a demonic nature (The Prophetic Years). One of the Bible scholars who believe that what is mentioned in Revelation refers to China, argues that never before in history was there a time that such an enormous number of army was possible other than in our generation. Even today over 3 billion people already live east of the Euphrates River (Koenig). Add to that all the abortions and infanticides of female children being legally practiced in China, and the result would be an excess of over 100 million in male population. According to Koenigs statistics, China would have produced over 200 million men of military age by the year 2025 or 2030 AD (The Prophetic Years). Conclusion Revelation 9:16-21 speaks of an era where a third of mankind is annihilated through war. Whether it is to be taken literally or figuratively had been the topic of debates since it has been written over 2 thousand years ago. Perhaps the main point John the Evangelist is trying to convey is for Christians to be always prepared for the Second coming of Christ, and focus on ones judgment, wherein our reward or damnation will be eternal. Works Cited Christian Community Bible. 30th ed. Philippines: Claretian Publications, 2000. Guzik, David. Revelation 9-The Fifth and Sixth Trumpets. 2001. EnduringWord.com. Retrieved 22 April 2009 https://enduringword.com/bible-commentary/revelation-9/ Koenig, Don. The Prophetic Years. Krell, Keith. All Hell Breaks Loose! 2004. Bible.org. Retrieved 22 April 2009 https://bible.org/seriespage/all-hell-breaks-loose-revelation-91-21 Talley, Robert. Back from hiatus with Revelation 9: trumpets, locusts, and 200,000,000 horses. 27 April 2007. WordPress.com. Castleton, Vermont.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Consultation For Leaders In Management. Consultation For Leaders In ManagementOrganizations the world over are encouraging a shift from a management perspective to a leadership perspective instilled through team building so as to solve inflexibility and quicken decision-making. In this essay therefore, empowerment, whereby people are encouraged to make autonomous decisions and feel in control to the resultant outcomes, has been proposed as a means of allowing dissent, encouraging teamwork and innovation. Leaders should distribute authority rather than a hands-on control approach. This is implemented by changing the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective by: influencing through context, creating a culture whereby all employees feel included, distributing authority without reclaiming, provision of logistical and moral support to employees, setting out a clear mandate and equipping the team for anticipated success. In order to influence through context, whereby trust is laid in a higher principle, belief and guiding force, the leader must aptly define the context and desired standards by giving team members the freedom to act and innovate thereby enhancing leadership, creating a competitive edge and nurturing proactive employees. Secondly, the leader should also nurture and empower a culture of inclusion whereby the leader should ensure that every team memberÃ¢â¬â¢s voice is heard despite their position. This atmosphere should encourage dissent as a foundation of objectivity and innovation whic h enables new ideas to be generated superior to those developed by the exercise of positional power. Thirdly, the leader should surrender positional authority and responsibilities without attempting to reclaim it so as to create pro-active employees. There is a transitory phase where the managers feel out of control and that things have gone awry and they are tempted to tighten control. This should be highly resisted. Leaders should further support the employee empowerment strategies put into place since empowerment involves giving responsibility and the freedom of choice so as to move from position of boss to coach. Also, the leaders should clearly articulate the common goal which the team is aiming at. Clarity of vision and roles played by various members should be enhanced so as to ensure accountability for specific goals and stay inbounds. Finally, equip the team members for success through training, resource allocation and information provision at all levels. This highly boosts the chances of success. (Lencioni) Management is distinct from leadership. Management employs a hands-on control whereas leadership allows responsibility allocation and freedom of choice. Management is characterized by managers having subordinates who are structured according to levels of formal authority. Management encompasses an authoritarian, transactional style whereby subordinates act on orders. It is transactional in the sense that employees are delegated duties in exchange for a salary or monetary reward. Further, managementÃ¢â¬â¢s focus is on work and is distinct in that managers are paid to work under time and money constraints. The work focus is naturally passed to their subordinates.Ã Finally, a recent study shows that managers seek comfort and prefer to avoid conflict through engaging in relatively risk-averse activities since they have been observed to come from upper-middle incomes and rich families. On the other hand, leaders do not have subordinates but rather have followers. When managers are le ading, they have to give up formal authority to encourage a following since this is usually voluntary. This style encompasses a charismatic and transformational style in that leaders have to appeal to team members in order to attract a following in risky and dangerous situations. They promise transformational awards not only through extrinsic rewards but also through value addition. Leadership focuses on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s personalities rather than their work. Leaders do not necessarily have a loud personality or friendly attitude but rather maintain an aloof attitude and a degree of separation. They are achievement driven, but, instead of solely focusing on work, they enthuse others to work towards their goals. Finally, leaders seek risk and are risk takers rather than risk averse. They envision hurdles and problems and their respective solutions. They view risks as potential opportunities which have been attributed to the fact that most of them come from handicapped families in chall enging backgrounds. (Marcus Buckingham, 2008). The managers, by resisting empowerment through encouraging responsibility and allowing a freedom of choice, signify an attempt to manage rather than lead. The CEO is in essence, trying to break from a tradition of pure management and encompass skills in leadership by employing a consultant to chart on appropriate techniques to be employed. Ã There are several arguments in favor of leadership rather than management. First, managers should provide an inspiring vision and a strategic alignment in a team rather just control. The leader should envision the future and passionately believe on the aspired goals. Secondly, leadership is an influence relationship whereas management is an authority relationship which deters the team spirit. Leadership further defines direction through establishing a vision. This vision can easily be communicated and aligned into the team memberÃ¢â¬â¢s spirit and energy. In a team, there is a need to energize and inspire team members in order to overcome any obstacles rather than delegating duties and authority as is the case for management. Effective leadership brings about positive, much needed change and opens up channels for innovation. (Avolio, 2003) As a consultant, there are various steps that I propose that a manager should take to change from a management style to a leadership style. Managers should first clarify and codify their convictions. The manager should evaluate his values, beliefs and ethics, how they can be demonstrated, their link to the overall organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and how the manager can change to fit within the team. Any additional assistance needed to enhance personal and organizational success should be obtained. The managers should constantly re-evaluate these steps to serve as a reality check. People cannot be forced into a following; hence, the manager should then accord the organization time to change towards their convictions. The next step is for the manager to align his or her behavior according to the convictions so as to build a collaborative culture based on the direction desired. Identify individual team playerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and their dreams in the workplace. Further, the manager should inte rview suppliers and customers on their specific needs in order to promote chance of success. Consultants further encourage managers to engage in conversation and communication. Listening is highly insisted upon so as to detect trends, themes and various possibilities. (Nahavandi, 2006) Empowerment has various outcomes. Key among them is decentralization whereby decision-making is as close to the action as possible hence quickening decision-making. This shall also lead to sharing of information n the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and mission. The need to hoard and withhold information and knowledge in order to maintain control is surpassed by an openly shared information system that encourages operation on the basis of facts. Contingent rewards are also used so as to motivate team members who significantly contribute to the organization. Failure should not be automatically punished for this inhibits empowerment. Teams created ensure employees are not only responsible for their individual success but also their team members. This therefore serves to unify the employees. Alignment in an organization is compulsory so as to maintain coherence and direction by sharing common goals and vision. There are various recommendations on what the CEO should strive to attain. The CEO should ensure that: all team member participate in the formulation of a strategic plan and line of action; ensure effective communication through meetings, trainings, electronic bulletin boards, e-mails and oral channels such as the phones so as to ensure healthy team dynamics; ensure a team charter is put in place in which the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s goals are clearly stated; ensure regular meetings are held between team members in order to brainstorm on topical issues through forms such as retreats; organize training and simulation exercises in the team by subdividing the team into subgroups that simulate healthy rivalry such as tug-of-war and ice breaking; delegate tasks so as to encourage trust in the team; promote collective responsibility in the team for mistakes committed by individual team members rather than apportioning blame for failure or inefficiency; establish appropriate conflict resolution tec hniques; carry out continuous appraisal and review onÃ individuals so as to curb inefficiency; introduce awards for significant achievements; keep the team focused so as to overcome any obstacles and finally, recognize the performing stage the team is currently in such as the peak period so as o maintain a consistent focus.(Argyris, 1976) References Argyris, C. (1976). Increasing Leadership Effectiveness. New York: Wiley. Avolio, B. J. (2003). Leadership Models, methods and Applications. John Wiley Sons Inc.. Lencioni, P. The Five Dysfunctions of a Team: A leadership Fable. J-B Lencioni. Marcus Buckingham, C. C. (2008). First, Break All the Rules: What the World's Greatest Managers Do Differently. Nahavandi, A. (2006). The art and science of leadership.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Account of buisness - Assignment Example 1). Both study results form a basis for discussing and analysing whether ABC can work for smaller businesses as they abandon the conventional costing system. The following paper discusses whether SMEs are ready to adopt the activity based costing system as an effective tool to achieve the desired level of cost savings and efficiency. First, ABC is not very popular amongst corporations today. Considering many SMEs follow the operational trends of corporations with the intention of reaching their levels of success through cost savings, the popularity of ABC amongst corporations is worth noting (FladkjÃ ¦r and Jensen, 2011, p. 3). According to CIMA, ABC is a strategy for the costing and monitoring of activities that entail drawing resource usage and costing final products. Corporations assign resources to activities, and activities to cost items based on usage approximations (Chapman et al., 2011, p. 669). According to Henrik FladkjÃ ¦r and Erling Jensen, SMEs seldom implement the ABC system due to two key reasons. First, ABC is very hard to apply. Second, the data basis for ABC is not accessible in the needed quality in ERP systems used by SMEs (FladkjÃ ¦r and Jensen, 2011, p. 21). A highly competitive global economy contributes to SMEsÃ¢â¬â¢ readiness to implement ABC. A competitive economy compels SMEs to lower the price of their commodities or services by raising output, improving product or service costing, or both. Challenges related to the shift from traditional costing systems to ABC cause rates of adopting ABC to lag behind corporations (JoÃ £o and Machado, 2012, p. 179). Researchers Owen Hall and Charles McPeak note these challenges as the cost of applying ABC, approximating the advantages of the ABC system, and incorporating ABC into the general management outline. As a result, the Hall and McPeak recommend SMEs to consider factors that affect a businessÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to apply new expertise. These factors are organisational willingness, fiscal